Grow Beautiful African Violet Houseplants Using Hydroponics

Using hydroponics to grow African Violets.

African Violets are lush colorful small houseplants and are favorites throughout the world. Most people dearly love these small potted flowers because they are beautiful, abundant flowering plants that take little room and can grow in nearly any corner or on a window sill.

Did you know you can grow beautiful African Violets using hydroponic gardening? It is soil-less, using nutrients that feed the root system. The flowers are twice as healthy and much more lush if grown with hydroponics. They need good lighting and even temperatures.

They need room to grow a root system, but it cannot be too large or the plants will not thrive. With Hydroponics gardening, the plant would not have to waste its energy developing extensive root networks because the hydroponic system with special nutrient supplies would take care of that. Thus they grow more lush, and faster.

Using normal soil and pot, they are a slow growth plant. Especially when starting them from a single leaf. You will find that African Violets are easy to grow indoors, and at very little cost. They are even grown commercially using glass housing and hydroponics.

The hydroponic system for growing African violets for commercial use as well has proved to be very successful. In fact, hydroponics gardening for African Violets has proven to be a very lucrative business. It is cheaper, effective, cleaner than outdoor gardening, and you do not have insects, and inclement weather, weeds or insect monitoring.

The hydroponic system lends itself to an easy use of adequate lighting for this flower. The use of a proper HID or high intensity charging fluorescent light (called LED grow lights) indoors will easily satisfy light requirements for the plants. African Violet flowers needs 60 to 80 degrees temperature to achieve optimal growth. This is very easy to sustain for the indoor gardener. In the winter, make sure that the room does not get to cold for the flowers.

A very small hydroponic system is ideal for the African Violet as well as other flowers and vegetables. There are super efficient flood-and-drain pump irrigation system that ensures optimal moisture control for healthy roots. The system works by pumping nutrient solution up from a reservoir to a water tray where water levels are precisely controlled. Plants are watered uniformly on a timed cycle for optimal moisture control and healthier roots. This way when the plants are watered from below the leaves and flowers do not get damaged from water touching them. They cannot have water touch the leaf or it will die.

African violets are easy to propagate. Just cut of a leaf leaving some stem to put into water. To keep the leaf from touching water while waiting for the roots to grow, is to use foil and poke a hole in it and then place the stem through the hole into the water. This will keep the leaf from touching the water while the stem grows the roots.

When it has sufficient roots you can put it in its own pot. Many African Violet lovers will trade leafs to get a variety of different plants. You can even cross-breed African Violets.

Most people do not know that African Violets have male and female parts.The male parts consist of the stamens, which are made of anthers and filaments. They have flaky yellow pollen. The female parts consists of the stigma, style, and ovary and are mature when they become sticky, making them ready to accept the pollen. Just look in the center of a bloom of one of your African violets to see the male and female parts. Thus, you can have different colors, single, double, ruffled edges, and almost any combination you can think of.

It is best to have several different African Violet plants in your house because if the plants are only male or female, they will not be very happy and will not bloom very well if at all. You will receive ample reward for your cost and effort for the beauty these lovely plants bring to your home for years.

Advantages Of An Online Computer Science Degree

A degree in computer science can be earned through two ways. First is the traditional way and the second is the information technology way. There are a number of universities using information technology in teaching students different courses such as Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA), Medical, Accounts, Commerce, Master of Business Administration (MBA) and Ph.D. These universities differ from their traditional counterparts in their fees structure, college courses offered, method of teaching and stipulated time period for pursuing a college course. Today science students prefer to earn online computer science degrees from accredited schools. It makes them eligible for global jobs such as Software Engineer.

Contrast between a traditional and an online computer science degree

It is mandatory for a student to attend classes for four years to study science courses. You can earn an online computer science degree in less than four years. Internet universities do not stipulate a fix time frame for pursuing college courses.

In a traditional university, students have to present physically to attend classes, practical and science seminars. Internet universities use information technology for teaching students. Science classes are organized on internet and the method used for teaching is chatting. Students can ask question to professors by using chatting software. They can also attend practical and science seminars online. You can attend classes, practical and seminars in the weekend, night or whenever you feel free.

The fees structure of an online university differs very much from a traditional university. Colleges running on internet do not maintain huge staff for teaching students. They do not invest much money hence they offer cost effective college courses to students. Professors can easily teach students using internet. Internet libraries have e-books, which are easy to maintain. Students can read e-books on their personal computer. On the other hand traditional universities have to maintain a huge staff for assisting professors and arrange books in library.

A traditional college enrolls students only when a semester ends. Students must have sound academic background with good GPA to become a scientist. Enrollment in an online university is a continuing process. You can fill the admission form anytime in a year.

Advantages of an online computer science degree

Working people can pursue computer science courses easily from internet universities without taking long leaves from office.

Physically challenged students need not to get confused for commuting long distances by enrolling in an internet university. They can become a scientist with the comfort of their home by earning an online computer science degree.

The cost effective fees structure on internet universities helps financially weak students to earn online computer science degrees. Internet universities also give you full day to work for improving your financial position.

The increasing popularity of internet education has inspired me to write more on this subject. For more information on online education college degree read my next article.

Xbox 360 Emulator

Microsoft’s Xbox 360 is the latest among the power gaming consoles out in the market today. And because the new game console provides a more than normal playing experience, a number of individuals, groups and even companies have started the buzz or talks regarding the possible development of different types of emulators to allow them to play Xbox 360 in various platforms.

Basically, an emulator can either be a software emulator which enables the computer system to work on a totally different software program from the one which was originally installed. On the other hand, the hardware emulator comes in the form of a hardware device and is designed for multi platform operations.

Earlier in March this year, reports came out that Nintendo Entertainment System or NES has released an emulator system dedicated for the Xbox 360. By making their own emulators, NES is able to allow the user to take the ROMs of most NES games and put them in the newer Xbox 360.

The use of console emulators began in the mid-90s. Console emulators were used to then to repackage and reissue their older games on newer versions of their game consoles. An example of which is the repackaging of their games for the Nintendo Wii which will allow for emulation of NES, SNES, Nintendo 64, Sega Genesis, and TurboGrafx-16 games.

However, there’s still a huge issue regarding the development of emulator programs and hardware. Since other game platforms are created by companies that are more or less competing in the same business, no single company will give the rights to its competitor to create emulators that will allow their games to run on the competitor’s game console.

Xbox 360 was originally created by Microsoft with the collaboration of companies like IBM, ATI, Samsung and SiS. The Xbox 360 was meant to replace the older Xbox game console which was also a product of Microsoft. Microsoft and its partners aimed to further improve the potential and capabilities of the Xbox by releasing the Xbox 360.

The new game console promised to give the best level of gaming experience unavailable from the older Xbox as well as from other brands and/or game console competition. It was proven to be such a popular game console. Since its release, millions of units have been sold not only across the country but all over the globe.

The Xbox 360 was created in such a way that the game consul is compatible with most of the Xbox’s previously published games, especially the top selling ones. The 360 is backwards compatible so it doesn’t actually need an emulator for older Xbox games.

Some consider emulators, either software or hardware, as illegal since they programs and hardware are used to change the games on a computer and can be modified to allow one to play pirated games. The Xbox 360 has a software emulator which allows them to play only original Xbox games since the creators of the game only licensed the hardware in the original Xbox.

Theoretically, however, one can emulate anything in an Xbox except for PS2 and Gamecube. Several emulators are already available for consoles I’ve never heard of. Other popular consoles already have their own working emulators. Basically, you’ll need an emulator and ROMs to be able to emulate in your Xbox. ROM is basically a game in a format that can be read and used by an emulator.

Deep Throat Techniques

Mastering different deep throat techniques will certainly get you on your way to some sexy deep throat love. And with the instruction you can create an incredibly erotic visual and a heightened sense of pleasure on the underside of your partners shaft.

But if you’ve only ever seen images of a woman’s throat expanding and contracting as a penis bulges in and out. Then it’s only natural to be thinking, what’s really in this for me other than a strong throat constitution and avoiding the taste of semen?

Whilst it’s definitely not for all women, if you love to be in control, have a sense for adventure and already thoroughly enjoy giving head, chances are with the right techniques you might just get a kick out of performing it.

Starting out, deep throat love can appear a daunting task but if you want to learn to deep throat you must first acknowledge that it’s a process that is practiced in stages. You’re not going to achieve the results either of you desire with you closing your eyes and hoping for the best and him being over eager, thrusting away with you choking on the other end. No one wants deep throat choke, so take the time to learn the proper deep throat techniques that will make performing it a lot easier to swallow.

Stage 1 – Positioning

Your correct positioning is one of the most important techniques, especially when starting out. The best way to learn is with him lying on his back with you on your side dictating when and how far you can comfortably go. Only when you have become totally accustomed to the sensation of deep throat and can control your body’s natural reflexes, should you consider trying a more submissive position such as lying on your back with your head hanging off the back of the bed. (irrumatio)

Stage 2 – Lubrication

There will definitely be no deep throat love if your mouth and throat are totally dry. So it’s very important to acquire the right deep throat techniques to ensure your mouth is well lubricated in assisting his penis sliding in to your throat. Regular sucking can tend to dry your mouth out after a while but if you press his penis as far back in to your mouth as you possibly can and hold it there for a few seconds, the back of your throat will begin to lubricate with thick saliva. Continue to do this a few times. Suck then hold, take a breath, then suck and hold again. This is known as the deep throat suck and with persistence, gradually your mouth will become a super slippery, deep throat friendly environment.

Stage 3 – Open Wide

It goes without saying that in order to perform any sort of sexy deep throat you are going to have to open your mouth really wide, but there is even a savvy deep throat technique for this. You may have noticed during fellatio the back of your throat prevents the penis from going any further. In order to get passed this, the trick to successful deep throat is opening your mouth wide enough (like a yawn) and titling your head back far enough to allow the penis to slip into your throat. This is easier said than done and will take some practice. Essentially you will need to try to create one long straight line between your mouth and throat. If you don’t get this straight line with your head tilted back, his penis will get stuck at the back of your mouth and won’t be able to move down your throat.

Stage 4 – Prepare For The Gag Reflex

Once you have practiced the head tilt, you should now be ready to take him in your mouth. As he enters, a good technique is to flatten the back of your tongue to help the muscles in your throat open.

At this point you should also prepare for the gag reflex. Unfortunately, there is no avoiding this, so when it occurs, try to be calm, pause, and hold him there as long as possible. Gagging is uncomfortable and can take a while to get used to but if you can repeat this step as many times as you can, eventually you should be able to suppress this feeling and gradually be able to take him in further. A good trick to help with this is to also try breathing out while taking him in to help stop the gagging reflex.

Stage 5 – Persistence

When you take it upon yourself to learn to deep throat, you must be prepared to be persistent. So when you get to the point where his penis hits the beginning of your throat it will be normal to feel a little resistance. In this case, you will need to flatten your tongue to open the back of your throat and create the flat straight line again. A little push from your partner is another deep throat technique that can help, as long as you’re aware it’s coming. You can also try to pull his penis in further using your tongue as a lever, to draw it in then push it back out. With a little persistence you should be able to take his penis in deeper to the point where you can take the entire length of it over your tongue and down in to your deep, deep throat.

When you have gotten this far just remember you don’t need to hold him in your throat for too long. Good deep throat techniques include practicing comfortably bringing him in and then letting him out, giving yourself a break when you need it. Deep throat does not have to mean leaving his penis in your throat.

Stage 6 – Breathing

No one wants a deep throat choke so always remember to breathe! It may sound obvious but it’s actually very easy to get lost in the process and tighten up as a result of a large foreign object pushing into your throat. It’s important to relax and take your time and learn to maintain a normal breathing level.

Stage 7 – Practice

Perfecting these techniques will take practice and perseverance. Follow the stages slowly and at your own pace to help you progress to where you can comfortably and confidently move on to the next stage. With practice your movements will become smoother and faster.

On a final note, if you get through all the stages you will want to know if he his planning or hoping to ejaculate down your throat. Some women do not like the taste of semen and deep throating gets around this. However having a man ejaculate directly down your throat in a restrictive position may be confronting and not desirable to some women. It is not absolutely necessary for you to have to deep throat swallow so discuss your partners intentions beforehand to ensure good, mutual happy deep throating!

Convert Lumber Pricing From Per Thousand To Per Piece

It used to drive me crazy trying to figure out how to calculate prices per thousand and then convert it into per piece. It was so tedious and after awhile, just plain irritating. So I designed a quick little spreadsheet on Excel that would calculate the answer for me and I must use it at least a dozen times per day, if not more.

Now that I’ve got a nice clientele, they are always asking me to convert pricing for them so I decided to do two things. Put up an interactive calculator on our website so that they can do it themselves AND write an article helping others that find themselves in the same boat. So let’s give an example and then how to convert it.

You need a truckload of 2x4x8′. You phone around and get quotes on the material. The best quote is $250/M for 20 packages (294 pieces per package). What is that per piece? So how much is it for the whole load EXACTLY?!?

Here’s the formula on how you calculate per piece.

Step 1 – Get the board feet per piece. (See my other article – “Board Feet? How to Calculate”) Thickness X Width X Length / 144 (Make sure to change the 8 foot to 96 inches (8×12)) 2 X 4 X 96 / 144 = 5.33333

Step 2 – Take the price per thousand (or Per M) and divide by 1000. 250 / 1000 = 0.25

Step 3 – Multiply the board feet in step 1 by the answer in step 2. 5.33333 X 0.25 = 1.33333

Your answer is $1.33 per piece (Rounded down of course).

Okay, are you still with me? Good! Now how much is the total truckload? Well, there are two ways to go about this. You can either take the long road or the short cut (which is more accurate). I’ll explain both.

Long Road – This is now taking 20 packages and multiplying by 294 pieces which will give you 5880 pieces. Now take $1.33 and multiply 5880 and you have your answer of $7820.40


Short Cut – In step one simply include the amount of packages and pieces in your calculation. 2 x 4 x 96 x20 x294 / 144 = 31,360 and multiply it by step 2 (0.25). You have your answer of $7840.00

NOW, you will notice that there is almost a $20 difference? That’s because in the first calculation we rounded down all those decimals to just two. That adds up over 5880 boards (by $19.60 to be exact!) So you definitely want to use the shortcut now that you know how.

So one last question. Why do lumber companies quote per thousand? Simply because of volume AND multiple sizes. It’s much easier to give one quote on 2x4x8, 2x4x10, 2x4x12, 2x4x16 at $250/M then having to calculate all the different sizes and them ad them together or quote each size individually (there may be ten different sizes on the truck!). Also, if the truck is heavy and a package has to come off, the lumber company would have to re-quote all over again when it was already painful to do it just the first time!

There you have it. Hopefully this now gives you a clear understanding of how to calculate and convert per thousand to per piece. Oh, one last thing, if you’re really stuck and still can’t get the calculations, simply visit our website and a free calculator program can be found there!

The History Of Computers

The early computers The history of computer dates back a lot longer than the 1900s, in fact computers have been around for over 5000 years.

In ancient time a “computer”, (or “computor”) was a person who performed numerical calculations under the direction of a mathematician.

Some of the better known devices used are the Abacus or the Antikythera mechanism.

Around 1725 Basile Bouchon used perforated paper in a loom to establish the pattern to be reproduced on cloth. This ensured that the pattern was always the same and hardly had any human errors.

Later, in 1801, Joseph Jacquard (1752 – 1834), used the punch card idea to automate more devices with great success.

The First computers? Charles Babbage’s. (1792-1871), was ahead of his time, and using the punch card idea he developed the first computing devices that would be used for scientific purposes. He invented the Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine, which he begun in 1823 but never completed. Later he started work on the Analytical Engine, it was designed in 1842.

Babbage was also credited with inventing computing concepts such as conditional branches, iterative loops and index variables.

Ada Lovelace (1815-1852), was a colleague of Babbage and founder of scientific computing.

Many people improved on the Babbage inventions, George Scheutz along with his son, Edvard Scheutz, began work on a smaller version and by 1853 they had constructed a machine that could process 15-digit numbers and calculate fourth-order differences.

On of the first notable commercial use, (and success), of computers was the US Census Bureau, which used punch-card equipment designed by Herman Hollerith to tabulate data for the 1890 census.

To compensate for the cyclical nature of the Census Bureau’s demand for his machines, Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company (1896), which was one of three companies that merged to form IBM in 1911.

Later, Claude Shannon (1916- 2001) first suggested the use of digital electronics in computers and in 1937 and J.V.Atanasoff built the first electronic computer that could solve 29 simultaneous equations with 29 unknowns. But this device was not programmable

During those trouble times, computers evolved at a rapid rate. But because of restrictions many projects remained secret until much later and notable example is the British military “Colossus” developed in 1943 by Alan Turing and his team.

In the late 1940 the US army commissioned John V. Mauchly to develop a device to compute ballistics during World War II. As it turned out the machine was only ready in 1945, but the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, or ENIAC, proved to be a turning point in computer history.

ENIAC proved to be a very efficient machine but not a very easy one to operate. Any changes would sometime require the device itself to be re-programmed. The engineers were all too aware of this obvious problem and they developed “stored program architecture”.

John von Neumann, (a consultant to the ENIAC), Mauchly and his team developed EDVAC, this new project used stored program.

Eckert and Mauchly later developed what was arguably the first commercially successful computer, the UNIVAC.

Software technology during this period was very primitive. The first programs were written out in machine code. By the 1950s programmers were using a symbolic notation, known as assembly language, then hand-translating the symbolic notation into machine code. Later programs known as assemblers performed the translation task.

The Transistor era, the end of the inventor. Late 1950 saw the end of valve driven computers. Transistor based computers were used because they were smaller, cheaper, faster and a lot more reliable.

Corporations, rather than inventors, were now producing the new computers.

Some of the better known ones are:

  • TRADIC at Bell Laboratories in 1954,
  • TX-0 at MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory
  • IBM 704 and its successors, the 709 and 7094. The latter introduced I/O processors for better throughput between I/O devices and main memory
  • First supper computers, The Livermore Atomic Research Computer (LARC) and the IBM 7030 (aka Stretch)
  • The Texas Instrument Advanced Scientific Computer (TI-ASC)

Now the basis of computers was in place, with transistors the computers were faster and with Stored program architecture you could use the computer for almost anything.

New high level programs soon arrived, FORTRAN (1956), ALGOL (1958), and COBOL (1959), Cambridge and the University of London cooperated in the development of CPL (Combined Programming Language, 1963). Martin Richards of Cambridge developed a subset of CPL called BCPL (Basic Computer Programming Language, 1967).

In 1969, the CDC 7600 was released, it could perform 10 million floating point operations per second (10 Mflops).

The network years. From 1985 onward the race was on to put as many transistors as possible on one computer. Each one of them could do a simple operation. But apart from been faster and been able to perform more operations the computer has not evolved much.

The concept of parallel processing is more widely used from the 1990s.

In the area of computer networking, both wide area network (WAN) and local area network (LAN) technology developed at a rapid pace

Get a more detailed history of computer [].

About CNC Milling Machines

When it comes to fabricating components, Computer Numerical Control (CNC) milling machines is one of the most important CNC machine tools which are widely used in many industrial businesses. It has been effectively used to increase one’s profitability as well as productivity in performing repetitive high precision and difficulty milling operations including drilling, slot and keyway cutting and many more, which these tasks could not be possibly done manually over a long period of time. Therefore, these CNC milling machines are a compulsory tool in most industrial businesses which has succeeded the traditional milling methods.

If you are a newbie and you would like to know what this particular milling machine capable of – here are some things that you should know:

1. There are existed as two distinctive types of milling machines – These machining centers are differentiated based on the positioning of the spindle motor (or orientation of the cutting tool). These machines are called horizontal milling machines because of the cutting tool is positioned and operating horizontally and vertical ones vice versa. Hence, it is common to see two types of these machining centers in most manufacturers – either in large or small manufacturers, as these machine tools are capable to perform milling operations in different directions.

2. Most of these CNC milling machines can perform versatile cutting and drilling operations – There are several types of these CNC machining centers that are well-known as multiaxis machining centers including 3-, 4- and 5-axis machines. Certainly, those machines which have the higher number of axes are cost higher than lower numbered axes because these machines are able perform intricate parts production. Thus, normally large scale manufacturers own 4-and 5-axis machines as both machine types are able to boost their productivity and profitability over a certain period of time.

3. These machines have integrated control software – Basically, CNC milling machine operations are controlled by its own distinctive control software. Operators need to be proficiency in CAD and CAM programming skills in order to control the computerized machining centers when performing high precision milling operations. As compared with traditional milling machines (or manual machines), most CNC machining centers are able to perform high precision milling operations and to reduce unnecessary wastage.

4. Most of these machining centers are ergonomically designed – Based on its ergonomic features, operators will not be forced to bend, crouch and contort your body during setup. Furthermore, the cutting tool is operating within an enclosed area is an effective preventative measure of avoiding unwanted accidents resulted from direct exposure of milling operations.

5. Wastage is not a big issue for CNC milling machines – As mentioned earlier, most CNC machines are capable of fabricating components without sacrificing precision and quality. Thus, using such CNC machines can effectively reduce one’s overhead costs.

6. CNC machining centers are also available in job shops – It is not necessary that a manufacturer has to machine components on their own. In most cases, they would outsource specific tasks – i.e. tasks which involved CNC milling process, to CNC service providers.

Be sure that you understand the benefits of having CNC milling machines before you start purchasing them.

6 Vital Tips For Writing User Interface Instructions

When people are online, their behavior is often driven by specific goals. They have things to accomplish, such as making a purchase, learning how to play guitar or finding a recipe for dinner. In many web page designs, therefore, is information to help a user perform an action. For example, if you design a button that must be clicked to reach a desired goal, such as placing items in a shopping cart, then slightly rounding the corners of the button and placing a shadow beneath indicates to users that the shape can be clicked. In addition to these types of visual cues, we often write instructions to assist users in knowing what to do next. These instructions guide the eyes and minds of the user to understand how to take the next appropriate action.

Understanding What the User is Thinking

Designing and writing the instructions that are part of the user interface design is both an art and science, involving copywriting and design skills as well as an understanding of how people use mental models. Mental models are a generalized idea of how things work. They are an efficient and speedy cognitive mechanism. People apply their mental models to new situations so they don’t need to relearn everything from scratch. This means people will apply their stereotype or mental model of similar websites to how your website works. For example, experienced users have a mental model about how to find articles in an article directory. They know they can most likely browse by topic or search by keyword.

Value of Instructions

This is one of the main reasons user interface instructions are so important. People have an unpleasant experience when their mental models are inaccurate or incorrect. It causes frustration, user errors and a failure to accomplish a goal. A frustrated user might look for another website that’s easier to use.

Writing easy to understand instructions and presenting them aesthetically can ward off these types of problems. Good instructions will guide website visitors, even if their mental models are imprecise or erroneous. Because instructions can make or break a user’s experience, here are some guidelines for writing user interface instructions that I’ve gleaned from years of designing online learning as well as gems from usability research.

1. Analyze Your Audience

You could say that the advice, ‘Know your audience’ is an overused cliche. On the other hand, you have nothing without an audience, so site visitors are of primary importance. Analyze your audience so you know their characteristics. When you know the characteristics of your audience, you can imagine them and direct your words to them. Unless your visitors are a savvy, homogeneous group, it’s best to assume they’ll need some guidance to achieve their goals.

2. Not Too Short; Not Too Long

When writing user interface instructions, include enough detail so users know exactly what to do, but not so much detail that it becomes difficult to process the information. People can only process small amounts of information at one time.

You can help the situation by writing instructions in plain and simple language, which should help visitors accomplish their tasks efficiently and quickly. Try to use short sentences when possible. For example, this sentence could easily be broken into two: ‘Click the Add to Cart button, then click Check Out at the top of the screen.’

3. Remove Extraneous Information

This guideline goes along with the brevity advice above, but is often best to do at the end of the writing process. At the end, you look at your writing from a different perspective. It’s easier to see which information is irrelevant, because it adds to the confusion quotient. Deleting extraneous and superfluous details will tighten up the final copy.

4. Write For Busy People

The task of writing accurately involves a subtle discrimination between words with similar meanings. Usability research shows that people scan a web page rather than read it. Thus, your wording should communicate effectively while someone is on the fly and barely paying attention. So use words that promote clarity. ‘Select a date’ is okay, but ‘Click on a date’ is more accurate. Avoid double negatives, such as ‘I do not want to unsubscribe.’ Also, stay away from jargon that some people won’t understand, like industry acronyms and technical terms.

5. Make Instructions Accessible for Screen Readers

It’s important that your small print instructions can be read by people who have difficulty reading small print and/or use devices to read computer screens. Some basic accessibility guidelines for writing user interface instructions are to: avoid using graphical text so it can be enlarged (discussed in #8 above); provide text alternatives to graphical content so it can be translated into other forms, like Braille; and clearly separate the instructions from the background so they can be easily seen. In addition, use hyperlinks contextually so that they make sense if the person can’t see the screen. For example, a link that states, ‘Instructions for using this form’ is better than a ‘Click here’ link.

6. Test Your Instructions

Test instructions with sample audience members, people outside of your office and with no prior knowledge of what it is you are doing. Observe one or more people performing the task for which you’ve written instructions. Note any difficulties they have and revise the instructions. Repeat the process until people accomplish the task without problems.

Computerized Financial Accounting

Complete financial accounting course or tutorial covers a range of following topics. It is being evaluated that how computers have affected traditional accounting methods and practices.

  • Financial Accounting with Double Entry Bookkeeping
  • Principles of Accounting
  • Basic Book of Accounting – Journal
  • Accounting Ledger
  • Accounting Sub Journals – Cash Cook
  • Subsidiary Accounting Books
  • Accounting Verification by Trial Balance
  • Banking Transactions Bank Reconciliation Statement
  • Depreciation
  • Rectification Of Accounting Errors
  • Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss Account
  • Single Entry Bookkeeping Accounting System
  • Non Profit Organization Accounting
  • Capital and Revenue
  • Reserves and Provisions

In a very short span of time, computer has grown from a scientific curiosity to an indispensable tool of modem society. There is hardly any scientific/technical or business activity which is not in one way or the other, affected by modern data processing techniques.

The human mind can handle only a limited number of things at a time. The digital computer, on the other hand, can be programmed to compare, measure, calculate and evaluate thousands of readings in an extremely short period of time.

The computer industry has become the fastest growing industry these days. The sale of mainframe computers is increasing day by day. The computer industry has been further pushed up by the introduction of mini computer and micro computers which are small, cheap, reliable and very light. These are being routinely used for process control, production testing, scientific instrument recording, in store check out systems, in automobile test and evaluating systems, and medical monitoring etc.

Computers are now being used extensively in office administration to perform the routine clerical work. Today, most large and medium sized organizations are almost totally dependent on their computers. Routine uses of computers are given below:

(i) Accounting, Billing, Inventory Control Software with MIS, CRM

Computers are extensively used in accounting and there are multitude of computer software for Accounting, MIS, CRM. HiTech Financial Accounting is one such software which has been customized for users in many segments in business and services.

(ii) Payroll and personnel records.

Payroll accounting was the first commercial area to become widely computerized. The calculation of wages or salaries involves a number of variables which relate to the personal details of each employee, such as gross pay or rate for the job, individual deductions, tax liabilities of the employees and so on. These facts can be retained in the computers and processed every month of produce pay slips for the employees.

(iii) Stock control

The computer helps to exercise the type of stock control needed by the organization. It upto dates the sales and purchases records, determines optimum re-order levels for different items and prints out the stock lists when desired. The system can be so designed that it triggers orders when stock level reaches order point for various material items; tests those item which are slow moving or gives list for over stock items.

(iv) Sale accounts records

Programming can be done for any sales accounting system. The computer will pin point defaulting debtors, determine the right limit for credit for each debtor and maintain stores ledger.

(v) Costing and budgetary control

Costing and budgetary control can be affected through the computer, the computer will point out the variations from the planned performance.

(v) Production control

The computer also helps greatly in production planning and control. It is possible that scheduling of the work may become necessary due to break downs etc. A new critical path may have to be worked out. A critical path is the shortest path to be followed in production to achieve production objectives. The computer helps the management lay down this new critical path. Advantages and disadvantages of a computer

A computer is surely advantageous because of the high speed of operation and greater accuracy it provides, savings effected by better managerial control, savings in labor because it is fully automatic and finally because of its flexibility in use. However, there is a considerable capital outlay with difficulty of obtaining experienced analysts and programmers, break down and maintenance troubles and finally fear of obsolescence due to rapid development of computers.

Type of other applications in relation to accounting system


It is a software package to help in text processing. Words are processed. Processing includes insertion, deletion changing, moving words, paragraphs etc. Word processing is the preparation of type scripts, using computing facilities for the storage and manipulation of text. For example, word processor has ability to merge name and addresses with standard text so as to give impression that the latter is personalized even in case of circular letter.

HiTech Financial Accounting has got features so that you can export its reports to Microsoft Word, a word processing and Mail Merge Program. You can also write letters to various parties and store the details in the program database.


It is simple collections of information (data) on a particular subject. Data base file allows you to manipulate the data in desired form. So, data base allows us to work on facts and figures to store and manipulate that data in any desired way. For example, from the same basic information trial balance is prepared; trading and profit and loss account may be prepared; list of debtors and creditors may be prepared; purchases and sales forecast may be made and so on. So, an efficient data-base management is needed to provide flexibility in uses of information. HiTech Financial Accounting uses MS Access and MS SQL server databases for robust database connectivity.


It is one of the software programs which have increased the utility of computer for accounting purposes. Spread sheet programs help you to draw vertical as well as horizontal columns on a large sized paper. Each .column’s length and breadth can be adjusted according to suitability. Even when columns are once drawn subsequently these can be altered, increased or decreased additional columns can be inserted, existing columns can be deleted. It is very useful for businessmen and professionals. It enables us to study multidimensional data at one sheet and helps in arriving at logical decisions. For example, if profit and loss account has been prepared for the year 1989 and you want a comparison with 1987 figures and 1990 forecast then spread sheet shall enable you to provide two additional columns on each side for inserting 1987 actual figures and 1990 forecast estimates.

HiTech Financial Accounting software can export its report data to Microsoft Excel Worksheet which is an advanced spreadsheet application.

A series of articles are proposed to be written on the topics mentioned in this article.

Easy Removal Of Old Boat Lettering And Graphics

I am often asked what is the best way to remove old boat lettering and boat graphics. Perhaps you wish to change the name of the watercraft, or perhaps you just want to upgrade your lettering to a new style with matching boat lettering graphic accents and accessories.

Or perhaps you just want to sell your boat and you wish to save your boat name for a future boat purchase. No matter what the reason, the result is the same, be prepared to scrape that decal and lettering off your boat and come equipped with plenty of elbow grease! Unless of course, you wish to use a little more removal technique and a little less elbow grease. First determine what kind of surface you are working with. Removal from a painted hull is dramatically different than removal from a fiberglass gel coated craft. In either case, you can use a scraping and soapy watery method on any surface. There are several methods to choose from but scraping and soapy water is usually safe for most surfaces and it gives you a chance to stop if you discover you are damaging your boat topcoat. You will need a scratch free plastic scraper (really good ones are very rare) and a solution of 1 cup of water and 5-10 drops of Palmolive dish washing liquid. The dish washing liquid serves two purposes.

First it’s a lubricant to help insure you don’t damage the top surface with thousands of scrape marks caused by any two dry objects being rubbed against each other. Secondly, it prevents the adhesive from re-bonding to the boat once you are able to lift it. A plastic – scratch free – scraper will likely come from your local professional paint retailer. Speak to them about your project and an appropriate scraper. . You might receive an offer for hardened plastic razor blades… -don’t waste your time on these. They do not work well. A good quality suitable scraper will have a very hard sharp edge on it, almost fine enough to cut with. Anything that’s blunt edged or unlike a knife edge is a waste of your time.

The very best scraper I have found is a device called the “Lil Chizzler”. Call your local paint stores and you might find it in stock. These are fairly cheap, around $1.00 each and you will likely need several to complete the job. There are copies of this scraper around but they are not marked “Lil Chizzler” if you find a generic brand of this scraper it is best to avoid it. All of the generics I have tried fail to last for more than a few minutes. Be sure of what you are looking for. Here is a photo of a genuine Lil Chizzler which may help you identify it locally.

Technique 1 Scraping: Spray the decal with your mixture of soapy water. Hold the scraper as close to flat against the boat surface as possible and start slicing across the butt edge of the decal where it meets the boat. Imagine trying to slice roast beef so think you can see through it. This is how you should approach the edge of the decal as you try to lift it off. With a little luck, you might find the decal lifting in such a way you can actually strip it off the boat by hand. If it breaks as you pull it up, then keep trying. The worst case scenario is that you’ll have to remove the whole decal by repeating the slicing action over and over and pulling off small sections with each lift. Just be sure to keep the work area well saturated with the soapy water solution to aid in removal and to help protect the boat surface. In some stubborn cases, application of moderate heat, hot but not to the point of burning skin, will soften the decal and cause a reduction of adhesive bond. Heat can help persuade off a stubborn decal.  

Once you have removed the decal, you will need a solvent to remove the trace adhesive. There are many solvents that work fine, but you should pick your solvent under the advice of your local paint store expert. You need a solvent that dissolves adhesive but does not affect whatever the finish coat is on your boat. Some fiberglass boats can withstand even strong paint removers which allow you to simply wipe on and hose off the decal, but this must be verified before you use any dissolving method chemicals. There is an old story about gasoline being an excellent adhesive remover. Fact is, gasoline will remove most adhesives but it does so at a great risk for your personal safety. Gasoline can poison you or worst yet, explode right in your face causing death or severe burns or both. Don’t use Gasoline. I know it’s tempting but it is just way too dangerous to use as a solvent.

Once I have the decal and adhesive removed, I usually like to hit the whole surface with a nice buffing compound which helps blend the oxidized exposed area to what could be new looking hidden areas under the former decal. You will likely see an imprint where the decal was removed but fortunately this will become less noticeable over time.  Use of a non scratching scraper is important.   There may be other non scratch scrapers available but I’ve only had good results with the Lil Chizzler.